Robert Berner, Why P&G's Smile Is So Bright, BusinessWeek (August 12, 2002), 58—60.

1. Based on John P. Kotter, Leading Change (Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press, 1996), 18—20.

2. David A.

Nadler and Michael L. Tushman, Organizational Frame Bending: Principles for Managing Reori­entation, Academy of Management Executive 3 (1989), 194—204; Michael L. Tushman and Charles A. O'Reilly III, Ambidextrous Organizations: Managing Evolutionary and Revolutionary Change, California Management Review 38, no. 4 (Summer 1996), 8—30.

3. William A. Davidow and Michael S. Malone, The Virtual Corporation (New York: HarperBusiness, 1992); Gregory G. Dess, Abdul M.A. Rasheed, Kevin J. McLaughlin, and Richard L. Priem, The New Corporate Architecture, Academy of Management Executive 9, no. 3 (1995), 7—20.

4. Joseph E. McCann, Design Principles for an Innovating Company, Academy of Management Executive 5 (May 1991), 76-93.

5. Kelly Barron, Logistics in Brown, Forbes (January 10, 2000), 78—83; Scott Kirsner, Venture Verite: United Parcel Service, Wired (September 1999), 83—96.

6. Richard A. Wolfe, Organizational Innovation: Review, Critique and Suggested Research Directions, Jour­nal of Management Studies 31, no. 3 (May 1994), 405-431.

7. John L. Pierce and Andre L. Delbecq, Organization Structure, Individual Attitudes and Innovation, Acad­emy of Management Review 2 (1977), 27—37; Michael Aiken and Jerald Hage, The Organic Organiza­tion and Innovation, Sociology 5 (1971), 63—82.

8. Richard L. Daft, Bureaucratic versus Non-bureaucratic Structure in the Process of Innovation and Change, in Samuel B. Bacharach, ed., Perspectives in Organizational Sociology: Theory and Research (Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, 1982), 129—166.

9. Alan D. Meyer and James B. Goes, Organizational Assimilation of Innovations: A Multilevel Contextual Analysis, Academy of Management Journal 31 (1988), 897—923.

10. Richard W. Woodman, John E. Sawyer, and Ricky W Griffin, Toward a Theory of Organizational Creativ­ity, Academy of Management Review 18 (1993), 293—321; Alan Farnham, How to Nurture Creative Sparks, Fortune (January 10,1994), 94—100.

11. Robert Barker, The Art of Brainstorming, BusinessWeek (August 26, 2002), 168—169.

12. Robert I. Sutton, Weird Ideas That Spark Innovation, MIT Sloan Management Review (Winter 2002), 83—87; Barker, The Art of Brainstorming; Gary A. Steiner, ed., The Creative Organization (Chicago: Uni­versity of Chicago Press, 1965), 16—18; James Brian Quinn, Managing Innovation: Controlled Chaos, Harvard Business Review (May—June 1985), 73—84.

13. Michael Barrier, Managing Workers in Times of Change, Nations Business (May 1998), 31—34.

14. Kotter, Leading Change, 20—25; John P. Kotter, Leading Change, Harvard Business Review (March- April 1995), 59-67.

15. L.D. DiSimone, comments about 3M in How Can Big Companies Keep the Entrepreneurial Spirit Alive? Harvard Business Review (November—December 1995), 184—185; Thomas A. Stewart, 3M Fights Back, Fortune (February 1996), 94—99.

16. Eric Matson, Here, Innovation Is No Fluke, Fast Company (August—September 1977), 42^4.

17. D.Bruce Merrifield, Intrapreneurial Corporate Renewal, Journal of Business Venturing 8 (September 1993), 383—389; Linsu Kim, Organizational Innovation and Structure, Journal of Business Research 8 (1980), 225—245; Tom Burns and G.M.

Stalker, The Management of Innovation (London: Tavistock Pub­lications, 1961).

18. James Q. Wilson, Innovation in Organization: Notes toward a Theory, in James D. Thompson, ed., Approaches to Organizational Design (Pittsburgh, Penn.: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1966), 193-218.

19. Michael L. Tushman and Charles A. O'Reilly III, Building an Ambidextrous Organization: Forming Your Own "Skunk Works", Health Forum Journal 42, no. 2 (March—April 1999), 20—23; J.C. Spender and Eric H. Kessler, Managing the Uncertainties of Innovation: Extending Thompson (1967), Human Relations 48, no. 1 (1995), 35—56; Robert B. Duncan, The Ambidextrous Organization: Designing Dual Structures for Innovation, in Ralph H. Killman, Louis R. Pondy, and Dennis Slevin, eds., The Management of Or­ganization, vol. 1 (New York: North-Holland, 1976), 167-188.

20. Tushman and O'Reilly, Building an Ambidextrous Organization.

21. James B. Treece, Improving the Soul of an Old Machine, BusinessWeek (October 25,1993), 134—136.

22. Edward F. McDonough III and Richard Leifer, Using Simultaneous Structures to Cope with Uncertainty, Academy of Management Journal 26 (1983), 727—735.

23. John McCormick and Bill Powell, Management for the 1990s, Newsweek (April 25,1988), 47—48.

24. Todd Datz, Romper Ranch, CIO Enterprise Section 2 (May 15,1999), 39—52.

25. J. Lynn Lunsford, Lean Times: With Airbus on Its Tail, Boeing Is Rethinking How It Builds Planes, The Wall Street Journal (September 2001), A1, A16.

26. Paul S. Adler, Barbara Goldoftas, and David I. Levine, Ergonomics, Employee Involvement, and the Toy­ota Production System: A Case Study of NUMMIs 1993 Model Introduction, Industrial and Labor Rela­tions Review 50, no. 3 (April 1997), 416—437.

27. Judith R. Blau and William McKinley, Ideas, Complexity, and Innovation, Administrative Science Quarterly 24(1979), 200-219.

28. Jonathan D. Day, Paul Y. Mang, Ansgar Richter, and John Roberts, The Innovative Organization: Why New Ventures Need More Than a Room of Their Own, The McKinsey Quarterly no. 2 (2001), 21—31.

29. Sherri Eng, Hatching Schemes, The Industry Standard (November 27 — December 4, 2000), 174—175.

30. Russell Mitchell, Masters of Innovation: How 3M Keeps Its New Products Coming, BusinessWeek (April 10,1989), 58-63.

31. Christopher Hoenig, Skunk Works Secrets, CIO (July 1,2000), 74—76.

32. Phaedra Hise, New Recruitment Strategy: Ask Your Best Employees to Leave, Inc. (Jury 1997), 2.

33. Daniel F. Jennings and James R. Lumpkin, Functioning Modeling Corporate Entrepreneurship: An Em­pirical Integrative Analysis, Journal of Managements (1989), 485—502.

34. Jane M. Howell and Christopher A. Higgins, Champions of Technology Innovation, Administrative Science Quarterly 35 (1990), 317—341; Jane M. Howell and Christopher A. Higgins, Champions of Change: Iden­tifying, Understanding, and Supporting Champions of Technology Innovations, Organizational Dynamics (Summer 1990), 40—55.

35. Peter F. Drucker, Change Leaders, Inc. (June 1999), 65—72; Peter F. Drucker, Management Challenges for the 21st Century (New York: HarperBusiness, 1999).

36. Stuart Cramer and Des Dearlove, Water Works, Management Review (May 1999), 39—43.

37. Thomas J. Peters and Robert H. Waterman, Jr., In Search of Excellence (New York: Harper & Row, 1982).

38. Ibid., p. 205.

39. Peter J. Frost and Carolyn P. Egri, The Political Process of Innovation, in L.L. Cummings and Barry M. Staw, eds., Research in Organizational Behavior, vol. 13 (New York: JAI Press, 1991), 229— 295; Jay R. Galbraith, Designing the Innovating Organization, Organizational Dynamics (Winter 1982), 5—25; Marsha Sinatar, Entrepreneurs, Chaos, and Creativity—Can Creative People Really Survive Large Company Structure? Sloan Management Review (Winter 1985), 57—62.

40. See Lionel Roure, Product Champion Characteristics in France and Germany, Human Relations 54, no. 5 (2001), 663—682 for a recent review of the literature related to product champions.

41. Paul Kaihla, Nokia's Hit Factory, Business 2.0 (August 2002), 66—70.

42. Christopher Power with Kathleen Kerwyn, Ronald Grover, Keith Alexander, and Robert D. Hof, Flops.. BusinessWeek (August 16,1993), 76—82; Modesto A. Maidique and Billie Jo Zirger, A Study of Success

and Failure in Product Innovation: The Case of the U.S. Electronics Industry, IEEE Transactions in Engi­neering Management 31 (November 1984), 192—203.

43. Scott Hensley, Bleeding Cash: Pfizer Youth Pill Ate Up $71 Million Before It Flopped, The Wall Street Journal (May 2, 2002),A1,A8.

44. Deborah Dougherty and Cynthia Hardy, Sustained Product Innovation in Large, Mature Organizations: Overcoming Innovation-to-Organization Problems, Academy of Management Journal 39, no. 5 (1996), 1120-1153.

45. Cliff Edwards, Many Products Have Gone Way of the Edsel, Johnson City Press (May 23,1999), 28, 30; Paul Lukas, The Ghastliest Product Launches, Fortune (March 16,1998), 44; Robert McMath, What Were They Thinking? Marketing Lessons I've Learned from Over 80,000 New-Product Innovations and Idiocies (New York: Times Business, 1998).

46. Edwin Mansfield, J. Rapaport, J. Schnee, S. Wagner, and M. Hamburger, Research and Innovation in Mod­ern Corporations (New York: Norton, 1971); Antonio J. Bailetti and Paul F. Litva, Integrating Customer Re­quirements into Product Designs, Journal of Product Innovation Management 12 (1995), 3—15.

47. Shona L. Brown and Kathleen M. Eisenhardt, Product Development: Past Research, Present Findings, and Future Directions, Academy of Management Review 20, no. 2 (1995), 343—378; F. Axel Johne and Patricia A. Snelson, Success Factors in Product Innovation: A Selective Review of the Literature, Journal of Product Innovation Management 5 (1988), 114—128; Science Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex, Success and Failure in Industrial Innovation (London: Centre for the Study of Industrial Innovation, 1972).

48. Dorothy Leonard and Jeffrey F. Rayport, Spark Innovation Through Empathic Design, Harvard Business Review (November—December 1997), 102—113.

49. Fara Warner, In a Word, Toyota Drives for Innovation, Fast Company (August 2002), 36—38.

50. Ira Sager, The Man Who's Rebooting IBM's PC Business, Bus/V?essVVee/c (July 24,1995), 68—72.

51. Jason Gertzen, Brady Corp. Streamlines Development Process, The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, March 10, 2002), accessed on August 8, 2002.

52. Lisa Bannon, Think Tank in Toyland, The Wall Street Journal (June 6,2002), B1, B3.

53. Kenneth B. Kahn, Market Orientation, Interdepartmental Integration, and Product Development Perform­ance, The Journal of Product Innovation Management 18 (2001), 314—323.

54. Brown and Eisenhardt, Product Development; Dan Dimancescu and Kemp Dwenger, Smoothing the Product Development Path, Management Review (January 1996), 36—41.

55. Melissa A. Schilling and Charles W.L. Hill, Managing the New Product Development Process, Academy of Management Executive 12, no. 3 (1998), 67—81.

56. Kathleen M. Eisenhardt and Behnam N. Tabrizi, Accelerating Adaptive Processes: Product Innovation in the Global Computer Industry, Administrative Science Quarterly 40 (1995), 84—110; Dougherty and Hardy, Sustained Product Innovation in Large, Mature Organizations; Kame Bronikowski, Speeding New Products to Market, Journal of Business Strategy (September—October 1990), 34—37.

57. George Stalk, Jr., Time and Innovation, Canadian Business Review (Autumn 1993), 15—18.

58. Faith Keenan, Opening the Spigot, BusinessWeek e.biz (June 4, 2001), EB17—EB20.

59. Steve Konicki, Time Trials, Information Week (June 3, 2002), 36—44.

60. David Leonhardt, It Was a Hit in Buenos Aires—So Why Not Boise? BusinessWeek (September 7,1998), 56, 58.

61. Edward F. McDonough III, Kenneth B. Kahn, and Gloria Barczak, An Investigation of the Use of Global, Virtual, and Colocated New Product Development Teams, The Journal of Product Innovation Management 18(2001), 110-120.

62. Dimancescu and Dwenger, Smoothing the Product Development Path.

63. Raymond E. Miles, Henry J. Coleman, Jr., and W.E. Douglas Creed, Keys to Success in Corporate Re­design, California Management Review 37, no. 3 (Spring 1995), 128—145.

64. Fariborz Damanpour and William M. Evan, Organizational Innovation and Performance: The Problem of Organizational Lag, Administrative Science Quarterly 29 (1984), 392—409; David J. Teece, The Diffusion of an Administrative Innovation, Management Science 26 (1980), 464—470; John R. Kimberly and Mi­chael J. Evaniski, Organizational Innovation: The Influence of Individual, Organizational and Contextual Factors on Hospital Adoption of Technological and Administrative Innovation, Academy of Management Journal 24 (1981), 689—713; Michael K. Moch and Edward V. Morse, Size, Centralization, and Organiza­tional Adoption of Innovations, American Sociological Review 42 (1977), 716—725; Mary L. FennelL Synergy, Influence, and Information in the Adoption of Administrative Innovation, Academy of Manage­ment Journal 27 (1984), 113-129.

65. Richard L. Daft, A Dual-Core Model of Organizational Innovation, Academy of Management Journal 21 (1978), 193-210.

66. Daft, Bureaucratic versus Nonbureaucratic Structure; Robert W. Zmud, Diffusion of Modern Software Practices: Influence of Centralization and Formalization, Management Science 28 (1982), 1421—1431.

67. Daft, A Dual-Core Model of Organizational Innovation; Zmud, Diffusion of Modern Software Practices.

68. Fariborz Damanpour, The Adoption of Technological, Administrative, and Ancillary Innovations: Impact of Organizational Factors, Journal of Management 13 (1987), 675—688.

69. Steve Hamm, Is Oracle Finally Seeing Clearly? BusinessWeek (August 3,1998), 86—88.

70. Gregory H. Gaertner, Karen N. Gaertner, and David M. Akinnusi, Environment, Strategy, and the Imple­mentation of Administrative Change: The Case of Civil Service Reform, Academy of Management Journal 27(1984), 525-543.

71. Claudia Bird Schoonhoven and Mariann Jelinek, Dynamic Tension in Innovative, High Technology Firms: Managing Rapid Technology Change Through Organization Structure, in Mary Ann Von Glinow and Susan Albers Mohrman, eds., Managing Complexity in High Technology Organizations (New York: Oxford Uni­versity Press, 1990), 90—118.

72. Garrett Walker and J. Randolph MacDonald, Designing and Implementing an HR Score-card, Human Resource Management 40, no. 4 (Winter 2001), 365—377.

73. David Ulm and James K. Hickel, What Happens after Restructuring? Journal of Business Strategy (July- August 1990), 37—41; John L. Sprague, Restructuring and Corporate Renewal: A Manager's Guide, Man­agement Review (March 1989), 34—36.

74. Stan Pace, Rip the Band-Aid Off Quickly, Strategy & Leadership 30, no. 1 (2002), 4—9.

75. Joshua Macht, Pulp Addiction, Inc. Technology no. 1 (1997), 43—46.

76. Benson L. Porter and Warrington S. Parker, Jr., Culture Change, Human Resource Management 31 (Spring—Summer 1992), 45—67.

77. Quoted in Anne B. Fisher, Making Change Stick, Fortune (April 17,1995), 122.

78. Reed Abelson, Can Respect Be Mandated? Maybe Not Here, The New York Times (September 10,2000).

79. Bill Breen, How EDS Got Its Groove Back, Fast Company (October 2001), 106—116.

80. W. Warner Burke, The New Agenda for Organization Development, in Wendell L. French, Cecil H. Bell, Jr., and Robert A. Zawacki, Organization Development and Transformation: Managing Effective Change (Burr Ridge: Irwin McGraw-Hill, 2000), 523—535.

81. W. Warner Burke, Organization Development: A Process of Learning and Changing, 2nd ed. (Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1994); Wendell L. French and Cecil H. Bell, Jr., A History of Organization Devel­opment, in French, Bell, and Zawacki, Organization Development and Transformation, 20—42.

82. French and Bell, A History of Organization Development.

83. The information on large-group intervention is based on Kathleen D. Dannemiller and Robert W. Jacobs, Changing the Way Organizations Change: A Revolution of Common Sense, The Journal of Applied Be­havioral Science 28, no. 4 (December 1992), 480—498; and Barbara B. Bunker and Billie T. Alban, Con­clusion: What Makes Large Group Interventions Effective? The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 28, no. 4 (December 1992), 570—591; Marvin R. Weisbord, Inventing the Future: Search Strategies for Whole System Improvements, in French, Bell, and Zawacki, Organization Development and Transforma­tion, 242-250.

84. J. Quinn, What a Workout! Performance (November 1994), 58—63; Bunker and Alban, Conclusion: What Makes Large Group Interventions Effective?

85. Dave Ulrich, Steve Kerr, and Ron Ashkenas, with Debbie Burke and Patrice Murphy, The GE Work-Out: How to Implement GE's Revolutionary Method for Busting Bureaucracy and Attacking Organizational Problems—Fast! (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002).

86. Paul F. Buller, For Successful Strategic Change: Blend OD Practices with Strategic Management, Organ­izational Dynamics (Winter 1988), 42—55.

87. Richard S. Allen and Kendyl A. Montgomery, Applying an Organizational Development Approach to Creat­ing Diversity, Organizational Dynamics 30, no. 2 (2001), 149—161.

88. Jyotsna Sanzgiri and Jonathan Z. Gottlieb, Philosophic and Pragmatic Influences on the Practice of Or­ganization Development, 1950—2000, Organizational Dynamics (Autumn 1992), 57—69.

89. Kotter, Leading Change; Paul Strebel, Why Do Employees Resist Change? Harvard Business Review (May—June 1996), 86—92; Michael Beer and Russell A. Eisenstat, Developing an Organization Capable of Implementing Strategy and Learning, Human Relations 49, no. 5 (1996), 597—619.

90. Ronald Recardo, Kathleen Molloy and James Pellegrino, How the Learning Organization Manages Change, National Productivity Review (Winter 1995/96), 7—13.

91. Based on Daryl R. Conner, Managing at the Speed of Change (New York: Villard Books, 1992), 146—160.

92. Drucker, Management Challenges for the 21st Century, Tushman and O'Reilly, Ambidextrous Organiza­tions; Gary Hamel and C.K. Prahalad, Seeing the Future First, Fortune (September 4, 1994), 64—70; Linda Yates and Peter Skarzynski, How Do Companies Get to the Future First? Management Review (January 1999), 16-22.

93. Based on Carol A. Beatty and John R.M. Gordon, Barriers to the Implementation of CAD/CAM Systems, Sloan Management Review (Summer 1988), 25—33.

94. These techniques are based partly on John P. Kotter's eight-stage model of planned organizational change, Kotter, Leading Change, 20—25.

95. Scott McCartney, Clipped Wings: American Airlines To Retrench in Bid to Beat Discount Carriers, The Wall Street Journal (August 13, 2002), A1, A8; Christine Y. Chen, American Airlines: Blastoff or Bust? For­tune (October 28, 2002), 37.

96. Everett M. Rogers and Floyd Shoemaker, Communication of Innovations: A Cross Cultural Approach, 2d ed. (New York: Free Press, 1971); Stratford P. Sherman, Eight Big Masters of Innovation, Fortune (Octo­ber 15,1984), 66-84.

97. Richard L. Daft and Selwyn W. Becker, Innovation in Organizations (New York: Elsevier, 1978); John P. Kotter and Leonard A. Schlesinger, Choosing Strategies for Change, Harvard Business Review 57 (1979), 106-114.

98. Jim Cross, Back to the Future, Management Review (February 1999), 50—54.

99. Peter Richardson and D. Keith Denton, Communicating Change, Human Resource Management 35, no. 2 (Summer 1996), 203-216.

100. Edgar H. Schein and Warren Bennis, Personal and Organizational Change Via Group Methods (New York: Wiley, 1965); Amy Edmondson, Psychological Safety and Learning Behavior in Work Teams, Ad­ministrative Science Quarterly 44 (1999), 350—383.

101. Diane L. Coutu, Creating the Most Frightening Company on Earth, An Interview with Andy Law of St. Luke's, Harvard Business Review (September—October 2000), 143—150.

102. Philip H. Mirvis, Amy L. Sales, and Edward J. Hackett, The Implementation and Adoption of New Tech­nology in Organizations: The Impact on Work, People, and Culture, Human Resource Management 30 (Spring 1991), 113—139; Arthur E. Wallach, System Changes Begin in the Training Department, Person­nel Journal 58 (1979), 846—848, 872; Paul R. Lawrence, How to Deal with Resistance to Change, Har­vard Business Review 47 (January—February 1969), 4—12,166—176.

103. Dexter C. Dunphy and Doug A. Stace, Transformational and Coercive Strategies for Planned Organiza­tional Change: Beyond the O.D. Model, Organizational Studies 9 (1988), 317—334; Kotter and Schlesinger, Choosing Strategies for Change.

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Источник: Ричард Л. Дафт; пер. с англ. под ред. Э.М. Короткова; предисловие Э.М. Короткова. Теория организации: Учебник для студентов вузов, обучающихся по спе­циальности «Менеджмент организации». — М.: ЮНИТИ-ДАНА, — 736 с.. 2006

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